Old Testament Women at The Annunciation: Gleanings from the Western Rite Lectionary
From The Word, November 2010
Not All by Herself
Orthodox believers of both the Eastern and Western Rites celebrate major feast days in honor of the events in the life of the Theotokos. St. Luke records three of these important occurrences: the Annunciation, March 25 (1:26–38), the Visitation, July 2 (1:39–56), and the Presentation, February 2 (2:21–39). A common feature in the three stories is that our Lady is never alone; other people share in the events of her life.
'Mary deliberately goes to be with her cousin Elizabeth after Mary’s annunciation. Mary is not alone at the Temple when she presents the infant Jesus, because the Gospel tells us that at least her husband, Joseph, the priest, and Saints Simon and Anna are there for the occasion. Mary’s annunciation itself, however, seems a little different. Yes, the archangel Gabriel comes to her, but he leaves after delivering his message, and we do not read that she has anyone else with her. Or, does she?
In fact, those who attend Orthodox Western Rite parishes discover in the lectionary readings for the Feast of the Annunciation that ﬁve women from the Old Testament spiritually join with the Blessed Virgin Mary. These women, in order of their liturgical appearance, are Eve, Sarah, the Psalmist’s royal Queen, the conceiving Virgin in Isaiah, and Hannah.
For any major Feast day, all Orthodox liturgies, whether Eastern or Western, deliberately place speciﬁc Old Testament passages in close succession to particular New Testament texts to help us see the interpretive links between them. In Western Rite, the link is that all the Old Testament texts are about women bearing sons who were vitally signiﬁcant for salvation history as fulﬁlled in the New Testament. These women and their sons helped prepare the world for the advent of theTheotokos, and her son, Jesus Christ. Within their own life stories the women functioned as “types” of Mary. A type is a preﬁgurative symbol which points forward to, and is fulﬁlled by, the corresponding future reality (the antitype). All these Old Testament women thus served as pointers to the reality and life of the Mother of God.
The Western Rite liturgy illuminates the ﬁve types of Mary: Eve, Sarah, the Psalmist’s royal Queen, the conceiving Virgin in Isaiah, and Hannah in the Feast of the Annunciation.
Women at the Annunciation
We meet the ﬁrst, Eve, the Woman, in theVesper service of Annunciation Eve. With the Old Testament lectionary lesson from Genesis 3:1–15, this initial service of the Annunciation takes us worshippers as far back in time as possible, deep into the painful deception of Eve in the Garden of Eden. It then pulls us forward a little by the spark of hope struck in the poem of the protoevangelium concerning her male offspring: “The LORD God said to the serpent . . . ‘I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel’” (Gen. 3:15).
Presently, when the liturgy directs us to the New Testament lesson, Revelation 12, we ﬁnd that the Scriptures have hurled us far into the future to meet the antitype of Eve. She gives birth to a boy and encounters a dragon who unsuccessfully seeks to destroy her and devour her son. It is a scene of cosmic proportions – like Eden – and the woman is like Eve, yet much greater than she is, for she bears the predicted offspring who will “rule all nations with a rod of iron” (Rev. 12:5). The text identiﬁes the dragon as “that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world” (Rev. 12:9). The same serpent who deceived Eve, now in spite of great conﬂict, is defeated, and the woman, the son, and “rest of her children” are victors. The Holy Orthodox Church identiﬁes this woman, “clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet,” as Mary herself (Rev. 12:1).
On the actual feast day, we meet the second woman-type in the special Old Testament lesson for the Morning Divine Ofﬁce, Genesis 18:1–14. Similar to the evening before, we ﬁnd ourselves several thousand years back, now at the annunciation of the barren matriarch Sarah, wife of Abraham. We hear her laugh in incredulity and the angelic visitor retort, “Is any thing too hard for the LORD?” He reinforces his promise, “At the time appointed I will return unto thee … and Sarah shall have a son” (Gen. 18:12–14). Through Sarah, Isaac, the long-promised son will be born through whom God will bless all nations.
The New Testament lesson of John 1:1–18 reveals the antitype of Sarah’s son Isaac in the person of the Word (logos). In this lectionary reading, we are conveyed even further back before Eden, before time, to when the Logos of God already was. We watch the Word make the world and light up human life in just the time it takes to read the verses (John 1:1–5). Having scarcely absorbed these words, we meet another promised
son sent from God to announce the advent of the Logos (John 1.6–7). John the Forerunner helps us see, though we cannot plumb the mystery, the only Begotten of the Father becoming human, “full of grace and truth” (John 1:14).
The next service of the Feast is the Divine Liturgy, in which we speciﬁcally center upon the Gospel account of the Annunciation itself and celebrate the Eucharistic banquet. Perhaps, however, before we can hear the Gospel, we must further prepare our hearts to receive such a profound message. Accordingly, the Liturgy introduces two more Old Testament Marian types toward the beginning of the service.
First, we chant the Introit Proper of Psalm 45:13, 15–16 (LXX 44). In these scriptures, we discover that we are singing at a royal wedding. We afﬁrm to the bride that the rich will come and make their requests to her, and that ladies-in-waiting will escort her to the King. Who is this bride? She is a royal consort to an Israelite monarch, but beyond that, our liturgical texts do not yet explain. Second, a short time later in the service, we listen to the lectionary reading of Isaiah’s prophecy in 7:10–15, given to another royal ﬁgure, that “a virgin will conceive and bear a son named Emmanuel.”
From the ﬁrst scriptures uttered at Annunciation Eve to the Epistle appointed for the Mass, our biblical liturgical texts have been suspending us in waiting, providing opportunity for us to anticipate the fulﬁ llment of what they promise. At last, when the priest or deacon chants the Gospel Reading, the Liturgy fully discloses this fulﬁllment in Luke 1:26–38.
And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end (Luke 1:30–33).
The Two Hymns
Even after reaching this central point of the feast, the story of the Annunciation does not yet end. A last commemoration takes place during that day’s Vespers and includes one more Old Testament woman-type who has to do with Mary. The Old Testament lectionary reading is of Hannah and her presentation of Samuel at the Tabernacle (1 Samuel 1:21–2:10; LXX 1 Kingdoms). The New Testament reading is the sequel to St. Luke’s Annunciation story, Mary’s visitation to her cousin Elizabeth (Luke 1:39–55). At ﬁrst glance we may wonder why the lectionary has switched from the Annunciation to the Visitation. That feast is not celebrated until July! A deeper look, however, reveals that, just as in all the other Old Testament readings for the feast, these texts abound with typology. Hannah’s story and Mary’s visitation to Elizabeth serve the story of the Annunciation as a gold setting intensiﬁes the beauty of a diamond. They unite two similar hymns of praise, one sung by Hannah and the other by the Theotokos herself, to surround Mary’s annunciation with the exultation beﬁtting the occasion.
The texts tell of two barren women, the type Hannah and her antitype, Elizabeth, miraculously conceiving prophets Samuel and John the Forerunner, who prepared the way for King David and King Jesus. These scriptures speak of the simple faith of both the type Hannah, who took the priest, Eli, at his word, and of the antitype Mary, to whom her cousin Elizabeth said, “Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulﬁllment of those things which were told her from the Lord.” (Luke 1:45).
The type of Hannah’s hymn and the antitype of Mary’s song spring from the lips of women who rejoice in God’s salvation, from a very personal level to the whole of Israel and the earth. Both women envision the work of God triumphing over emptiness, poverty, evil, and death, to bless the nations through His Anointed. Hannah ﬁnishes her magniﬁcat with a prophecy looking forward to the coming of King David and his antitype, the Messiah, Jesus the Son of God. “And he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed” (1 Sam. 2:10). Mary ends her magniﬁcat hearkening back to God’s ancient covenant and His great redemptive acts as if they have already been completed through her Son. “He has helped His servant Israel, in remembrance of His mercy, as He spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and to his seed forever” (Luke 1:55).
The interconnection of the Old and New Testaments is nearly seamless because of the rich use Orthodox services make of typology. We easily travel from the far reaches of pre-historic Eden in Genesis to an apocalyptic war in heaven in Revelation. The intent is that we will see the New Testament Mary as the antitype of Old Testament types who bore Israel’s key leaders before her, culminating with her bearing God’s Son, the Messiah.
In reversing Eve’s choice, Mary cooperates with the will of God and becomes Revelation’s “new Eve” whose son will conquer Satan. Like Sarah, she will conceive under circumstances that only God can say are “possible,” and she will bear a son who is the ultimate fulﬁllment of promise. Like Isaiah’s maiden, she is a Virgin who miraculously bears a son; like the Queen in Psalm 45, she is highly favored of the Lord. Lastly, she is like Hannah, bold with trust in God, and full of vision for His salvation of the world.
Including so many women-types from different generations serves to bind their lives together in the history of Israel and thus, most importantly, to the life of Christ, His holy Mother, and to us, His Church. These women played a key role in God’s salvation history, and had ample reason to rejoice. As do we.
Lynette Smith has an M.A. in Biblical Studies and is a member of St. Columba Orthodox Church in Lafayette, Colorado. She is the author of the book, Voyage: A Quest for God within Orthodox Christian Tradition, published by Regina Orthodox Press, 2010.