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On the Liturgical Year for Teachers: Great Lent

This series of blog posts will offer basic information and resources regarding the liturgical year. It is our hope that Sunday Church School teachers will find this series helpful as they live the liturgical year with their students. The series will follow the church year in sections, as divided in the book The Year of Grace of the Lord: a Scriptural and Liturgical Commentary on the Calendar of the Orthodox Church by a monk of the Eastern Church. May God bless His Church throughout this year!

Great Lent consists of the 40 days leading to Holy Week, which, in turn, immediately precedes Pascha. Since its early days, Great Lent has been observed as a time of penitence, spiritual growth, and illumination. Although it is a time of great spiritual struggle, it is also a time of deep joy for Orthodox Christians, as we prepare our hearts to experience Christ's Passion and Resurrection.

In the early centuries, Church practice included baptizing people at the Paschal Vigil. This was also when Christians who had gone astray and returned to the Faith were reconciled to the Church. In order to train and prepare these people for joining (or re-joining) the Church, an "intense period of preparation, which included fasting, began forty days before Holy Week... it gradually became a universal institution, observed by catechumens and faithful alike for its salutary effects on the life of the Christian community." (1)

The monk-author of The Year of Grace of the Lord points out that the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts reminds us that "Lent... commemorates Israel's forty years of wandering in the wilderness, those forty years during which the chosen people...went forward with faith towards the far-off promised land..." (2, p. 109) He goes on to remind us that these years (as well as during Great Lent), God's people relied on Him fully, and He provided physically with food as well as spiritually with His presence, the Ten Commandments, and many miracles. The monk continues, "Lent recalls the forty days that the Lord Jesus spent in the desert during which he contended with Satan, the tempter. Our Lent must also be a period of fighting against temptation... During the time of Lent, the Church leads us, as if by the hand, towards the radiant paschal feast. The more serious our Lenten preparation has been, the deeper we shall enter into the mystery of Easter and gather its fruits." (2, p. 110)

Bishop Kallistos Ware said, "The primary aim of Great Lent is to make us conscious of our dependence upon God." (1) We are encouraged to focus on three things during Great Lent: prayer, fasting, and almsgiving. Lent is a time for repentance, that we may turn from sins and earthly cares to focus our whole being on Christ and His glorious resurrection, which heals us completely. This truth grants us great joy amidst the struggles we encounter during Lent.

"Let us begin the lenten time with delight.. Let us fast from passions as we fast from food, taking pleasure in the good words of the spirit, that we may be granted to see the holy passion of Christ our God and his holy Pascha, spiritually rejoicing." (from Vesperal Hymns)

Let us participate fully in the life of the Church throughout Great Lent. As we do, let us also struggle to properly prepare our hearts and the hearts of our students for Holy Week and Pascha. If we do, when we arrive at the Feast of feasts, we will be prepared and filled with joy!

Footnotes:
1. Calivas, Rev. Alciviadis C., Th.D., (1985, 8/13). "Orthodox Worship". Retrieved from https://www.goarch.org/-/...
2. A monk of the Eastern Church. The Year of Grace of the Lord. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press; 2001.

Here are some related links, including ideas for teaching students about Great Lent:
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Here is a blog post about Forgiveness Vespers, the beautiful way in which we begin Great Lent:
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This blog post suggests ways to help your students begin Lent well. It includes links to resources such as a daily lenten calendar that helps families learn about the themes of Great Lent with suggested activities for each day, among others. https://orthodoxchurchsch...
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This blog post about the Presanctified Liturgy is geared towards families, but could be helpful to share with your students' parents to help encourage them to attend these Lenten liturgies.
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During Great Lent, we celebrate the Feast of the Annunciation. Here's a blog post that can help you teach your students about this feast!
(An additional helpful resource is the quarterly publication "Blessed Children," published by St. George Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral, Pittsburgh, PA. Volume 4, Issue 1 is all about the Annunciation and contains articles related to it: ranging from the icon to the church of the Annunciation to a challenge to say "Yes!" just like the Theotokos did.)
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The second Sunday of Great Lent is the Sunday of St. Gregory of Palamas. This blog post may be helpful as you help your students learn more about him.
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The fourth Sunday of Great Lent is the Sunday of St. John Climacus. Here's a blog post that could be helpful as you prepare to teach your students about him.
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The issue of "Little Falcons" magazine that is called "Fasts" is filled with articles related to fasting. "What Can We Do for Great Lent?" (pp. 20-21) offers practical suggestions of things children can begin to do during Great Lent to grow closer to God and to be more like Christ. It would make a fabulous discussion starter near the beginning of Lent; and your class could return to it later in the fast, to give yourselves a "checkup" as to how you are doing in these areas. "Fasts" is Issue #30 of Little Falcons. It is available as a back issue here.